Unit 4: Acid Base Chemistry – Learning Standards

Use the following learning standards to help you to keep tract of your progress:

Chemistry 12 Prescribed Learning Outcomes (PLO’s)

The prescribed learning outcomes for Chemistry 12 have been coded for ease of reference for those compiling provincial exams.

J: Acids, Bases, and Salts
(Properties and Definitions)

It is expected that students will:
J1. identify acids and bases through experimentation
J2. list general properties of acids and bases
J3. write balanced equations representing the neutralization of acids by bases in solution
J4. define Arrhenius acids and bases
J5. write names and formulae of some common acids and bases and outline some of their common properties, uses, and commercial names
J6. define Brönsted-Lowry acids and bases
J7. identify Brönsted-Lowry acids and bases in an equation
J8. write balanced equations representing the reaction of acids or bases with water
J9. identify an H30+ ion as a protonated H20 molecule that can be represented in shortened form as H+(aq)
J10. define conjugate acid-base pair
J11. identify the conjugate of a given acid or base
J12. show that in any Brönsted-Lowry acid-base equation there are two conjugate pairs present

K: Acids, Bases, and Salts

(Strong and Weak Acids and Bases)

It is expected that students will:
K1. relate electrical conductivity in a solution to the concentration of ions
K2. classify an acid or base in solution as either weak or strong by comparing conductivity
K3. define a strong acid and a strong base
K4. define a weak acid and a weak base
K5. write equations to show what happens when strong and weak acids and bases are dissolved in water (dissociation, ionization)
K6. compare the relative strengths of acids or bases by using a table of relative acid strengths
K7. identify and explain why the strongest acid in aqueous solutions is H30+ and the strongest base in aqueous solutions is OH-
K8. predict whether products or reactants are favoured in an acid-base equilibrium by comparing the strength of the two acids (or two bases)
K9. compare the relative concentrations of H30+ (or OH-) between two acids (or between two bases) using their relative positions on an acid strength table
K10. define amphiprotic
K11. identify chemical species that are amphiprotic
K12. describe situations in which H20 would act as an acid or base

L: Acids, Bases, and Salts

(Kw , pH, pOH)

It is expected that students will:
L1. write equations representing the ionization of water using either H30+ and OH- or H+ and OH-
L2. write the equilibrium expression for the ion product constant of water, Kw
L3. predict the effect of the addition of an acid or base to the equilibrium system: 2H2O(1)  H30+(aq)+OH-(aq)
L4. state the relative concentrations of H30+ and OH- in acid, base, and neutral solutions
L5. state the value of Kw at 25°C
L6. describe the variation of the value of Kw with temperature
L7. calculate the concentration of H30+ (or OH-) given the other, using Kw
L8. describe the pH scale with reference to everyday solutions
L9. define pH and pOH
L10. define p Kw , give its value at 25°C, and its relation to pH and pOH
L11. perform calculations relating pH, pOH, H30+, and OH-
L12. calculate H30+ or OH- from pH and pOH

 M: Acids, Bases, and Salts

(Ka and Kb Problem Solving)

It is expected that students will:
M1. write Ka and Kb equilibrium expressions
M2.relate the magnitude of Ka or Kb to the strength of the acid or base
M3. given the Ka, Kb, and initial concentration, calculate any of the following:

  • H30+
  • OH-
  • pH
  • pOH

M4. calculate the value of Kb for a base given the value of Ka for its conjugate acid (or vice versa)
M5. calculate the value of Ka or Kb given the pH and initial concentration

N: Acids, Bases, and Salts
(Hydrolysis of Salts)

It is expected that students will:
N1. write a dissociation equation for a salt in water
N2. write net ionic equations representing the hydrolysis of salts
N3. predict qualitatively whether a salt solution would be acidic, basic, or neutral
N4. determine whether an amphiprotic ion will act as a base or an acid in solution


O: Acids, Bases, and Salts

It is expected that students will:
O1. describe an indicator as a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, each with distinguishing colours
O2. describe the term transition point of an indicator, including the conditions that exist in the equilibrium system
O3. describe the shift in equilibrium and resulting colour changes as an acid or a base is added to an indicator
O4. predict the approximate pH at the transition point using the Ka value of an indicator
O5. predict the approximate Ka value for an indicator given the approximate pH range of the colour change

 P: Acids, Bases, and Salts

(Neutralizations of Acids and Bases)

It is expected that students will:
P1. demonstrate an ability to design and perform a neutralization experiment involving the following:

  • primary standards
  • standardized solutions
  • titration curves
  • indicators selected so the end point coincides with the equivalence point

P2. calculate from titration data the concentration of an acid or base
P3. calculate the volume of an acid or base of known molarity needed to neutralize a known volume of a known molarity base or acid
P4. write formula, complete ionic, and net ionic neutralization equations for:

  • a strong acid by a strong base
  • a weak acid by a strong base
  • a strong acid by a weak base

P5. calculate the pH of a solution formed when a strong acid is mixed with a strong base
P6. contrast the equivalence point (stoichiometric point) of a strong acid-strong base titration with the equivalence point of a titration involving a weak acid-strong base or strong acid-weak base

Q: Acids, Bases, and Salts
(Buffer Solutions)

It is expected that students will:
Q1. describe the tendency of buffer solutions to resist changes in pH
Q2. describe the composition of an acidic buffer and a basic buffer
Q3. outline a procedure to prepare a buffer solution
Q4. identify the limitations in buffering action
Q5. describe qualitatively how the buffer equilibrium shifts as small quantities of acid or base are added to the buffer
Q6. describe common buffer systems present in industrial, environmental, or biological systems

R: Acids, Bases, and Salts

(Acid Rain)

It is expected that students will:
R1. write equations representing the formation of acidic solutions or basic solutions from non-metal and metal oxides
R2. describe the pH conditions required for rain to be called acid rain
R3. relate the pH of normal rain water to the presence of dissolved CO2
R4. describe sources of NOx and SOx
R5. discuss general environmental problems associated with acid rain


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