Unit 2: Equilibrium Learning Standards

Use the following learning outcomes to keep track of your learning progress:

  • D:     DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM (Introduction)
  • D1.      describe the reversible nature of most chemical reactions
  • D2.      identify the reversible pathways of a chemical reaction on the PE diagram
  • D3.      relate the changes in rates of the forward and reverse reactions to the changing concentrations of the reactants and products as equilibrium is established
  • D4.      describe chemical equilibrium as a closed system at constant temperature:     
  • •            whose macroscopic properties are constant
  • •            where the forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
  • •            that can be achieved from either direction
  • •            where the concentrations of reactants and products are constant
  • D5.      describe the dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium
  • D6.      infer that a system not at equilibrium will tend to move toward a position of equilibrium
  • D7.      determine entropy and enthalpy changes from a chemical equation (qualitatively)
  • D8.      state that systems tend toward a position of minimum enthalpy and maximum randomness (entropy)
  • D9.      predict the result when enthalpy and entropy factors:     
  • •            both favour the products
  • •            both favour the reactants
  • •            oppose one another
  • E:     DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM (Le Châtelier’s Principle)
  • E1.      describe the term shift as it applies to equilibria
  • E2.      apply Le Châtelier’s principle to the shifting of equilibrium involving the following:
  • •            temperature change
  • •            concentration change
  • •            volume change of gaseous systems
  • E3.      explain the above shifts using the concepts of reaction kinetics
  • E4.      identify the effect of a catalyst on dynamic equilibrium
  • E5.      apply the concept of equilibrium to a commercial or industrial process
  • F:     DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM (The Equilibrium Constant)
  • F1.      gather and interpret data on the concentration of reactants and products of a system at equilibrium
  • F2.      write the expression for the equilibrium constant when given the equation for either a homogeneous or heterogeneous equilibrium system
  • F3.      relate the equilibrium position to the value of Keq and vice versa
  • F4.      predict the effect (or lack of effect) on the value of Keq of changes in the following factors:
  • •            temperature
  • •            pressure
  • •            concentration
  • •            surface area
  • •            catalyst
  • F5.      calculate the value of Keq given the equilibrium concentration of all species
  • F6.      calculate the value of Keq given the initial concentrations of all species and one equilibrium concentration
  • F7.      calculate the equilibrium concentrations of all species given the value of Keq and the initial concentrations
  • F8.      determine whether a system is at equilibrium and if not, in which direction it will shift to reach equilibrium when given a set of concentrations for reactants and products

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