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Laws in Chemistry; Learn more about the law of Definite Composition

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The 2017 Nobel Prize for Chemistry goes to ….


The Nobel prize for chemistry was announced yesterday.  The winning research allows for enhanced visualization of molecules.  The 2017 prize went to the “development of cryo-electron microscop.”  This is  a technique that allows the structures of biomolecules to be revealed.

This technique provides scientists with insights into how proteins move and interact with other molecules, as well as potentially improving our understanding of how drugs act on protein targets.

 

 

 

In 2015 the Nobel Prize in chemistry went to a technique that “spellchecked” DNA:

Mushrooms that emit light make use of a catalyst to speed up the reaction rate


More interesting information about how catalysts help to speed up reaction rates in glow in the dark mushrooms

Read the article here:  Mechanism and color modulation of fungal bioluminescence

Abstract

“Bioluminescent fungi are spread throughout the globe, but details on their mechanism of light emission are still scarce. Usually, the process involves three key components: an oxidizable luciferin substrate, a luciferase enzyme, and a light emitter, typically oxidized luciferin, and called oxyluciferin. We report the structure of fungal oxyluciferin, investigate the mechanism of fungal bioluminescence, and describe the use of simple synthetic α-pyrones as luciferins to produce multicolor enzymatic chemiluminescence. A high-energy endoperoxide is proposed as an intermediate of the oxidation of the native luciferin to the oxyluciferin, which is a pyruvic acid adduct of caffeic acid. Luciferase promiscuity allows the use of simple α-pyrones as chemiluminescent substrates.”

Chemists with enzyme envy. Chemists use plant models to design a new catalyst.

“Through photosynthesis, plants and some bacteria use energy from sunlight to turn carbon dioxide and water into useful organic chemicals.

Now researchers have developed a catalyst that can turn CO2 into ethanol and propanol when operating at voltages that solar cells could provide (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2017, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1711493114).
This process of powering chemical synthesis via solar power, called artificial photosynthesis, could enable carbon-neutral fuels. In such a system, every molecule of CO2 emitted when a fuel is burned could be captured to make another fuel molecule. But developing catalysts that can recycle CO2 is challenging, says Peidong Yang, a chemist at the University of California, Berkeley.”

Using catalysts based on iron, copper, indium, and other metals, researchers have successfully transformed CO2 into single-carbon compounds, including carbon monoxide, formate, and methanol. Making multicarbon compounds directly has proved more difficult.

The team discovered this better catalyst by systematically studying the performance of different densities of copper nanoparticles on support structures made of various materials. Graduate student Dohyung Kim found the best catalytic performance when he covered carbon paper with about 45 µg of the copper particles per square centimeter of the paper.

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Despite these fastidious efforts, Yang says the researchers are not yet sure why the catalyst works so well. The researchers observed that after seven minutes under reaction conditions, the spherical nanoparticles fuse into larger cubic ones, with an interface between copper, copper oxide, and carbon from the paper. The group is still investigating the mechanism, but they believe this interface is key to the structure’s catalytic activity. “We’ve finally identified a key active interface to produce two- and three-carbon compounds,” Yang says.

Article Link

The role of nano units in helping to learn more about tattoo ink and tattoo removal

What was I thinking? Science helps out.

“Nanoparticles from tattoos circulate inside the body, study finds”


Learn more about the movement of tattoo ink from skin to lymph nodes

Florida Official Goes Metric

Florida is the first state in the US to adopt the metric system.  This will bring the state into alignment with other international jurisdictions that use the SI.  Way to go Floridians!

“The metric system will become mandatory for field events at all Florida high school meets beginning in 2018. Proponents say this will simply bring the state in line with the rest of the track world. The Olympics and other international competitions at the junior and senior levels measure jumping and throwing events using the metric system. So do collegiate and professional meets in the United States.”

Read all about it in the NYT

Welcome to Moscrop Chemistry

Thanks for stopping by! Welcome to another exciting year learning of learning. I am looking forward to being your teacher and helping you to become the best Chemistry Student ever!

Let’s get started!

Student access to online locker sign up begins at 2:00 pm on Tuesday September 5, 2017.  Grade 12 students have private lockers.  Grade 11 students will be sharing a locker.

Learn more about Canada’s metal (It is Canada’s 150 – the fun continues)***

Crystal Growing Competetion starts in October 2017 – Sign up and gather your supplies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The National Crystal Growing Competition Handbook – a must read for serious contenders!***

Great Links to explore:

 

PTable